---- Works on Witchcraft----
in the Miskatonic University Library
Nider, Johannes (Dominican professor and prior), Formicarius (written: c. 1435) (pub.: c. 1475, ? Augsburg) - First book on witchcraft and second book ever printed (after Spina's Fortalicium Fidei). No comments on sabbat.  1484. Second Edition. Folio. Striking contemporary binding; richly rubricated in red throughout the text. Unusually, this copy closes with a thirty-leaved manuscript in red ink on the rescuing of the soul from Satan and the techniques of exorcism with many references to the Church Fathers.

Vineti, Jean (Inquisitor at Carcassonne), Tractus contra Demonum Invocatores (written: c. 1450) - First book to identify witchcraft as heresy.

Anonymous (Inquisitor in French Cavoy), Errores Gazariorum (written: c. 1450) - Idea of sabbat highly developed.

Harlieb, Johann (Physician to King of Bavaria) - Buch aller verbotenen Kunst, Unglaubens und der Zauberei (written: c. 1456) - First work written in German.

Nider, Johannes (Dominican professor and prior), Preceptorium (1507). The binding is decorated with panel features originally cut in the mid-fifteenth century.

Jacquier, Nicholas (Inquisitor in France and Bohemia), Flagellum Hæreticorum Fascinariorum (written: 1458) pub.: 1581) - First major definition of witchcraft as new heresy.

Alphonsus de Spina (Franciscan, converted Jew), Formicarius Fidei (written: 1458) (pub.: 1467, Strasbourg) - First book ever printed about witchcraft.

Anonymous (Inquisitor at Lyons), La Vauderye de Lyonois (written: 1460) - First work written in French.

Visconti, Girolamo (Inquisitor, professor, provincial of Lombardy), Lamiarum sive Striarum Opusculum (written: 1460) (pub.: 1490, Milan) - Even defending witches is heresy.

Martin de Arles (Frenchman, professor and canon in Spain), Tractatus de Superstitionibus (written: c. 1460) pub.: 1517, Paris)

Momor, Petrus (Canon, regent of University of Poitiers), Flagellum Maleficorum (written: c. 1462) (pub.: 1490, Lyons) - Spread of witchcraft in France due to Hundred Years' War and magic introduced by foreigners. Sabbat described.

Vignati, Ambrogio de (Jurist and professor at Padua, Bologna, Turin), Tractatus de Hæreticis (lectures) (written: c. 1468) (pub.: 1581) - Urges caution with accusations by accomplices.

Jordanes de Bergamo (Master of theology at Cortona, Italy), Quæstio de Strigis (written: c. 1470) - Accepts witchcraft as heresy, but tries to reconcile Canon Episcopi.

Vincent, Jean (Prior at Vendée, France) Liber Adversus Magicas Artes (written: c. 1475) - Accepts magic; rejects witchcraft.

Innocent VIII (Pope), Bull; "Summis desiderantes affectibus" (1484, Rome, printed in Malleus) - Appointed Sprenger and Kramer as inquisitors to intensify witchcraft trials, using torture.

Sprenger, Jacob & Kramer, Heinrich (Inquisitors), Malleus Maleficarum (c. 1486) - The most evil book of the witchcraft delusion. Developed theory of the heresy of witchcraft into rigid code and set pattern for 300 years.  1486, First Edition, Folio. This copy printed by Peter Drach is particularly striking for its heavy annotations throughout in a near contemporary hand, commencing with a poem to Satan and some descriptions of poisoning witches. It is conjectured that a more than enthusiastic judge used this copy. There are at least 9 or 10 other copies of the Malleus in this collection dating from 15th - 17th centuries.

Molitor, Ulrich (Professor of Law University of Constance), Tractatus de Pythonicis Mulieribus (1489, ? Constance) - If witchcraft is illusion, should be punished as if real.

Molitor, Ulrich (Professor of Law University of Constance), De Lamiis (1489. This is the most important and only illustrated incunable book on witchcraft, characterised by unusual woodcuts. Interestingly this nineteenth century binding features the same panel decoration as the previous book.

Champier, Symphorien (Physician), Dialogus in Magicarum Artium Destructionem (c. 1500, Lyons) - Sabbat a delusion; maleficia due to natural causes. Physicians should treat deluded. Remarkable enlightenment.

Prierias, Sylvester (Inquisitor in Lombardy; papal spokesperson against Luther), Sylvestrina Summa (1504, Bologna) - Influenced by Malleus. Devoted to explaining away Canon Episcopi.

Prierias, Sylvester (Inquisitor in Lombardy; papal spokesperson against Luther), De Strigimagarum Dæmonumque Mirandis (1521, Rome) - Accepts full-blown theory of witchcraft; gives rules for trials, in which condemnation is inevitable.

Cassini, Samuel de (Franciscan who opposed Savonarola), Question de le Strie (1505, ?) - The first book to attack the identification of witchcraft as heresy, calling inquisitors the heretics.

Geiler von Kayserberg (Priest), Die Emeis (written: 1508) (pub.: 1517, Strasbourg) - First book about witchcraft printed in German (collected sermons). Advocates burning white witches as well.

Trithemius (Abbot), Liber Octo Questionum (1508?, 1515, Oppenheim) - Follows Malleus. All trouble caused by witches, who must be burned.

Trithemius (Abbot), Antipalus Maleficiorum (1508?, 1555, Ingolstadt)

Bernard de Como (Inquisitor at Como), De Strigiis [in Lucerna Inquisitorum] (written: 1510) (pub.: 1566, Milan) - Accepts full-blown theory of sabbat as real and corporeal.

Tengler, Ulric (Lawyer), Layerspiegel (?1509, ?Milan) - Follows Malleus; secular courts should follow procedure of Inquisition in witchcraft trials.

Alciatus, Andreas (Lawyer at Milan), Parergon Juris (written: c. 1514) (pub.: 1558, Basel) - Skeptic: witches' delusions about sabbat can be cured by herbs.

Pompanazzi, Pietro (Professor at Padua), De Naturalium Effectuum Causis (written: 1520) (pub.: 1556, Basel) - Inclined to skepticism; escaped punishment by plea that as philosopher he might doubt, yet as Catholic he truly believed everything the Church taught.

Ponzinibio, Gianfrancesco (Lawyer at ? Florence), Tractatus de Lamiis (written: c. 1520) (pub.: 1556, Basel) - Very important work, completely opposing witchcraft delusion and conduct of trials by Inquisition. Accepts simple sorcery.  Reprinted with De sortilegiis by Paolo Grillando in 1592 (see Illustration)

Pico della Mirandola, Gianfrancesco (Lawyer), Strix (?1523)

Pico della Mirandola, Gianfrancesco (Lawyer), Strega(Italian) (1524, Bologna: 1555, Pescia) - First book about witchcraft printed in Italian. Accepts witchcraft delusion, stressing incubi.

Spina, Bartolomeo (Theologian, Master of Sacred Palace), Quæstio de Strigibus (written: 1523) (pub.: 1526, Venice) - Disciple of Prierias. Most violent promulgation of extreme witchcraft delusion to date. Opposed Ponzinibio.

Grillandus, Paulus (Papal judge in witch trials in Rome area), Tractatus de Hereticis et Sortilegiis (written: 1525) (pub.: 1536, Lyons) - Major work treating in detail all aspects of extreme witchcraft delusion from viewpoint of ecclesiastical law.

Civelo, Pedro (Inquisitor at Saragossa), Opus de Magica Supersitione (1521, Alcala)

Civelo, Pedro (Inquisitor at Saragossa), Reprobación (Spanish) - First book about witchcraft printed in Spanish, a classic for a century; relatively moderate.

Vitoria, Francisco de (Professor of theology, University of Salamanca), Relationes xii Theologicae (1540) - Inclined to skepticism.

Bodin, Jean.  De la démonomanie des sorciers [1587]. Bodin's work Démonomanie, a study of the influence of good and evil spirits in the world, inaccurately gave him the reputation of a witch-hunter. 

Grilland, Paolo: De sortilegiis and Ponzinibio, Gianfrancesco: Tractatus de Lamiis
Two tracts in one volume.  (1592.) Tractatus de Lamiis is a reprint of the 1520 work by Gianfrancesco Ponzinibio.

King James VI of Scotland, I of England, Daemonologie, (1597, Edinburgh) in the form of a dialogue, divided into three books - Book 1 - The exord of the whole. The description of Magie in special. - Book 2 - The description of Sorcerie and Witch-craft in Speciall. - Book 3 - The description of all these kindes of Spirites that troubles men or women.  The conclusion of the whole Dialogue.  Available in the Miskatonic University On Line Library.

Pierre de Lancre, Tableau de l'inconstance des mauvais anges et démons où il est amplement traité des sorciers et de la sorcellerie (1612)  Pierre de Lancre may not have been an original writer but he put his thoughts to action by hunting the witches of the Labourd.  He was known for his belief in the sinful nature of women.  Women, he believed, were so dangerous that a single judge could never be trusted to judge them, because men are weak.  He held that only a panel of many should judge women.. 

Richard Gilpin, Demonologia Sacra, or a Treatise on Satans' Temptations (1735).  A long and moral warning about the dangers of anything not in the strict Christian lifestyle. 

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